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Modularity

Although several polynomials could be added to the above state machine so as to express more operations, it would only make the design hard to test, audit or formally verify.

In order to avoid this complication, PIL lets one use a divide and conquer technique:

(a) Instead of developing one (big) state machine, a typical architecture consists of different state machines.

(b) Each state machine is devoted to proving the execution of a specific task, each with its own set of constraints.

(c) Then, relevant polynomials on different state machines are related and compared using lookup tables or permutation arguments.

(d) This guarantees consistency as if it would have been a single state machine.

PIL is therefore best suited for a modular design of state machines.

Figure 12 depicts a connection between the polynomials \([a,b,c]\) and \([d,e,f]\).

Polynomial Connections Across State Machines

Figure 12: Polynomial Connections Across State Machines

To illustrate this process,

  1. First, design a state machine to manage arithmetic operations over \(2\)-byte elements.
  2. Then, connect this state machine with another state machine (that needs to perform arithmetic operations) via a lookup argument.

The Arithmetic State Machine

The Arithmetic State Machine is in charge of checking that some arithmetic operations like additions and multiplications are correctly performed over \(2\)-byte elements. For this, the polynomials; \(\texttt{a}\), \(\texttt{b}\), \(\texttt{c}\), \(\texttt{d}\), and \(\texttt{e}\); must satisfy the identity:

\[ \texttt{a}(X) \cdot \texttt{b}(X) + \texttt{c}(X) = 2^{16} \cdot \texttt{d}(X) + \texttt{e}(X). \]

Notice the following,

(a) The multiplication between \(\texttt{a}\) and \(\texttt{b}\), which are \(2\)-byte elements, can be expressed with \(\texttt{e}\) and \(\texttt{d}\), where these are also \(2\)-byte elements.

(b) Enforce that all the evaluations of \(\texttt{a}\), \(\texttt{b}\), \(\texttt{c}\), \(\texttt{d}\) and \(\texttt{e}\) are \(2\)-byte elements.

Architecture of the Arithmetic State Machine

Figure 13: Architecture of the Arithmetic State Machine

Figure 13 shows how the Arithmetic State Machine is designed. And, Tableb14 displays an example of how the computational trace looks like.

Computational Trace of the Arithmetic State Machine

Table 14: Computational Trace of the Arithmetic State Machine

The Arithmetic state machine works as follows. \(\texttt{LATCH}\) is used to flag when the operation is ready. Note that \(\texttt{SET}[A]\), \(\texttt{SET}[B]\), \(\texttt{SET}[C]\), \(\texttt{SET}[D]\), \(\texttt{SET}[E]\) and \(\texttt{LATCH}\) are constant polynomials. \(\texttt{freeIn}\) is committed, and contains the values on which arithmetic operations are performed. Polynomials \(\texttt{a}\), \(\texttt{b}\), \(\texttt{c}\), \(\texttt{d}\) and \(\texttt{e}\) compose the state variables.

The polynomial identities that define the Arithmetic State Machine are as follows:

\[ \begin{aligned} &\texttt{freeIn} \subset [0,2^{16} - 1], \\ \texttt{a}' &= \texttt{SET}[A]\cdot(\texttt{freeIn} - \texttt{a}) + \texttt{a}, \\ \texttt{b}' &= \texttt{SET}[B]\cdot(\texttt{freeIn} - \texttt{b}) + \texttt{b}, \\ \texttt{c}' &= \texttt{SET}[C]\cdot(\texttt{freeIn} - \texttt{c}) + \texttt{c}, \\ \texttt{d}' &= \texttt{SET}[D]\cdot(\texttt{freeIn} - \texttt{d}) + \texttt{d}, \\ \texttt{e}' &= \texttt{SET}[E]\cdot(\texttt{freeIn} - \texttt{e}) + \texttt{e}, \\ 0 &= [ \texttt{a} \cdot \texttt{b} + \texttt{c} - (2^{16} \cdot \texttt{d} + \texttt{e}) ] \cdot \texttt{LATCH}. \end{aligned} \]

These are included in PIL as shown in the code excerpt below.

PIL Example

Code Excerpt 15: PIL Example

The Main State Machine

The Main State Machine is in charge of some (major) tasks, but will specifically use the Arithmetic SM when Arithmetic operations needs to be performed over certain values.

The Main State Machine Architecture

Figure 15: The Main State Machine Architecture

Hence, the first task in PIL is to introduce the various polynomials. It looks as follows,

Arithmetic State Machine PIL Example

Code Excerpt 15: Arithmetic State Machine PIL Example

xt, proceed with theif some polynomial is intended to be boolean, then a constraint that reflects so must be added.

PIL Example with Added Constraint

Code Excerpt 16: PIL Example with Added Constraint

Now, add various constraints regarding the evolution of the "main" state variables \(a\), \(b\), \(c\), \(d\) and \(e\), so that any kind of linear combination between the main state variables, the free input and any constant is subject to be moved in the next iteration of some (or all) the state variables. Figure 16 shows a diagram of the desired behavior.

Boolean Polynommials in the Main State Machine

Figure 16: Boolean Polynommials in the Main State Machine

In PIL, it translates to the following:

Verification of Basic Registry Operations

Code Excerpt 17: Verification of Basic Registry Operations

Finally, the constraints reflecting the relationship between the Main and the Arithmetic SMs can be checked.

PIL Example Connect Main and Arithmetic SMs

Code Excerpt 18: PIL Example Connect Main and Arithmetic SMs

The connections can be depicted in terms of tables, as Figure 17 below,

Connecting Arithmetic and Main State Machines

Figure 17: Connecting Arithmetic and Main State Machines

On the one side, the \(\texttt{arith}\) selector is used in the Main SM to point to this state machine when an arithmetic lookup have to be performed. On the other side, the \(\texttt{LATCH}\) selector, which also works as a selector for which rows should be added in the lookup argument is used. And, as illustrated in Figure 17 above, this proves that,

\[\begin{array}{c} \texttt{Main.arith} \cdot [\texttt{Main.a} , \texttt{Main.b} , \texttt{Main.c} , \texttt{Main.d}, \texttt{Main.e}] \\ \subset \\ \texttt{Arith.LATCH} \cdot [\texttt{Arith.a}, \texttt{Arith.b}, \texttt{Arith.c}, \texttt{Arith.d}, \texttt{Arith.e}]. \end{array}\]